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In mathematics, a tuple is a finite ordered list (sequence) of elements. An n-tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of n elements, where n is a non-negative integer. There is only one 0-tuple, an empty sequence, or empty tuple, as it is referred to. An n-tuple is defined inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Tuples: 1- single 2- couple 3- triple 4- quadruple 5- quintuple 6- sextuple 7- septuple 8- octuple 9- nonuple (n-tuple) 10- decuple 20- viguple

Mathematicians usually write 'tuples' by listing the elements within parentheses "{\displaystyle ({\text{ }})}(\text{ })" and separated by commas; for example, {\displaystyle (2,7,4,1,7)}(2, 7, 4, 1, 7) denotes a 5-tuple. Sometimes other symbols are used to surround the elements, such as square brackets "" or angle brackets "⟨ ⟩". Braces "{ }" are only used in defining arrays in some programming languages such as C++ and Java, but not in mathematical expressions, as they are the standard notation for sets. The term tuple can often occur when discussing other mathematical objects, such as vectors.

In computer science, tuples come in many forms. In dynamically typed languages, such as Lisp, lists are commonly used as tuples.[citation needed] Most typed functional programming languages implement tuples directly as product types,[1] tightly associated with algebraic data types, pattern matching, and destructuring assignment.[2] Many programming languages offer an alternative to tuples, known as record types, featuring unordered elements accessed by label.[3] A few programming languages combine ordered tuple product types and unordered record types into a single construct, as in C structs and Haskell records. Relational databases may formally identify their rows (records) as tuples.

Tuples also occur in relational algebra; when programming the semantic web with the Resource Description Framework (RDF); in linguistics;[4] and in philosophy.[5]